S‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‌‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‍‍‌‍‍ee the attached Chapter 4 Results for the outline for this

S‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‌‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‍‍‌‍‍ee the attached Chapter 4 Results for the outline for this assignment. Incorporate the attached completed Data Analysis into the complete Dissertation Results assignment. Utilize the PHD interviews attachment for information used for the Data Analysis. See below for Background of the Problem and Statement of the Problem Background of the Problem Racial identity is a critical aspect in relation to ethnic conflict among African American senior non-commissioned officers. Many studies have shown that leadership roles in the U.S. Army is politically influenced (Reyes, 2006). Kline, Wade, and Wiarda (2018) indicate, politics built the American culture. Senior leadership roles in the U.S. Army are offered based on racial and ethnic grounds. The exclusion of these aspects is ambiguous, thus portraying continual ethnic conflicts in the U.S. Army (Snorton, 2017). Cole (2017) identifies equality as involving the society’s social ranking determined by the majority in a particular ethnic group. Strmic-Pawl, Jackson, and Garner (2018) also relate this aspect to ethnic inclinations of a race on the superiority concept to rule. The element of ethnic tendencies takes less preference in identifying leadership qualities and is biased to choosing a leader based on a race’s superiority. Individuals in leadership positions prefer to associate with or support others within their ethnic origins. Ethnicity is the cause of racial discrimination. This is shown by the absence of African American officers in the . Army’s combat command. The . Army, which is the largest among the armed services has made limited progress in promoting officers of color, especially African American soldiers (Brook, 2020). West (2017) claims racial discrimination delimits the American culture, consisting of African American’s treatment. Meine and Dunn (2019) identify its roots as inexorable even if the new norms of American Lifestyle require equal treatment of African Americans and other inferior races. As a result, the . Army has not attained diversity in military senior leadership roles (Gonzalez & Simpson, 2021). For example, racial discrimination begins from recruitment all the way to the senior leadership ranks. Reports by the USA TODAY shows that in 2014 there was no African American colonel leading combat arms units (Brook, 2020). Past literature reviews have not argued on the actual demands and anticipation of a new American equality norm. The exclusion of African Americans has never settled, even with the increased opportunities and cases of Africans taking senior leadership roles in the . Army (Meine & Dunn, 2019). The arguments have not fully expressed ho‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‌‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‍‍‌‍‍w the situation has made it challenging to identify the equality line that will settle the difference in African Americans’ preferences in senior leadership positions in the . Army. While most scholars think that the American society is a true reflection of a diverse culture, diversity in the . Army is major problem (Hoffman, 2018). This perspective has guided the argument of inclusion in the top leadership positions in the . Army. For many years the . Army has been working to create a force that reflects the ethnic and racial diversity of the American population. A report by the Congress charted commission has established that though the Pentagon has attained this goal in lower ranks, the story is quite dissimilar at the top (Winn & Dykes, 2019). Many studies have not fully explored the struggle to ascend in leadership roles by African Americans and build the Whites’ hierarchical ceiling (Knauer & Christine, 2019). The indifference highlights the ethnic conflict that has long endured in the . Army. The identification link to race and its historical roots has built the American culture. This aspect is not well erased from past cases in the current studies. Statement of the Problem There exists a deep-rooted imprint of ethnic conflicts in American culture, and these imprints affect African American Non-Commissioned Officers in the . Army (Butler, 1996). African Americans have made efforts to overcome the perceptions deterring their true abilities to take senior leadership roles in the . Army. The efforts have resulted in increased preferences in receiving higher leadership positions. However, the thirst for equality has not quenched (Sue, 2016). There is a gap in understanding how ethnic conflict helped shape the leadership of senior African American non-commissioned officers in the . Army (Majeed and Macdonald, 2010). The . Army were not fully integrated until the World War II, a legacy that has left African Americans with a limited history of generations of family services that is shared by most of their white counterparts (Cooper, 2020). Research has shown that white military veterans articulated more “lethal attitudes” toward African Americans unlike their civilian counterparts (Gonzalez & Simpson, 2021). The current American norm of equality has not excluded the fact that race differences indicate the superiority preference embedded in the culture (Mendelberg, 2017). Realizing equality leads to a struggle that creates a different form of inequality (Spring, 2016). The problem in ethnic conflicts include the unending racial discrimination, inclinations, and inequalities in the . Army influenced by politics and‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‌‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‍‍‌‍‍ culture.

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