Please answer two of the following essays. 1. Discuss and critically analyze thr

Please answer two of the following essays.
1. Discuss and critically analyze three ideal type contrasts between the aristocratic and democratic social systems as advanced by Tocqueville. Then using Tocqueville shed light on the possible “tyranny” democracy could face in the future. Toward what sort of discord might we be tending? Toward what sort of sickness might we be heading?
2. Discuss and critically analyze Max Weber’s thesis in his lecture “Science as a Vocation.” Establish the crushing blow Weber delivers to the liberal hopes in science. Be sure to set the parameters within which Weber sets the scientist qua scientist. Finally, does Weber see science as contributing to the so-called iron cage of rationality?
3. Use Max Weber’s social action types and their corresponding legitimations as well as Weber’s multidimensional analysis of inequality to unpack the following passage:
“Bureaucracy inevitably accompanies modern mass democracy . . . This results from the characteristic principle of bureaucracy: the abstract regularity of the execution of authority . . . hence the horror of ‘privilege,’ and the principled rejection of doing business ‘from case to case’ . . . Thereby democracy inevitably comes into conflict with the bureaucratic tendencies which, by its fight against notable rule, democracy has produced . . . The most decisive thing here — indeed it is rather exclusively so — is the leveling of the governed in opposition to the ruling and bureaucratically articulated group, which may in its turn may occupy a quite autocratic position, both in fact and in form.” (From Max Weber, p.224 and p. 226)
4. Problems of order and meaning in modernity are persistent themes we have addressed all semester long. Select a theory that you feel 1) best illuminates problems of order and meaning in modernity and 2) offers the most reasonable means of escaping the abyss. Be sure to have fun with this question as fun is the best thing to have.

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